top of page

Rediscovering the Native Greenback Cutthroat Trout of Colorado: A Conservation Success Story

Fly Fishing for native Greenback Cutthroat Trout in Estes Park, Colorado and the Rocky Mountain National Park.
Swimming through crystal-clear water, the native Greenback Cutthroat Trout is a true marvel of nature.

Colorado, with its majestic Rocky Mountains, pristine rivers, and diverse wildlife, is a haven for nature enthusiasts and anglers alike. One of the state's most iconic and endangered species is the Greenback Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii stomias), often referred to as the "holy grail" of Colorado's native fish. In this in-depth blog post, we will explore the fascinating world of the Greenback Cutthroat Trout, its history, conservation efforts, and its significance in the delicate ecosystem of Colorado.

1. The Greenback Cutthroat Trout: An Overview

Physical Characteristics

The Greenback Cutthroat Trout is known for its striking appearance. It has vibrant, olive-green to yellowish skin, and its most distinguishing feature is the prominent red or orange slash-like mark (resembling a cutthroat) under its lower jaw. The body is covered in small black spots, which become more concentrated towards the tail.

Habitat and Distribution

Historically, Greenback Cutthroat Trout were found in the cold, clear streams and rivers of the Arkansas and South Platte River basins in Colorado. They preferred high-altitude habitats, typically at elevations between 6,000 and 10,000 feet, where the water is cool and pristine.

2. Historical Significance

Native Range

Greenback Cutthroat Trout were once widely distributed across Colorado, but their native range was primarily concentrated in the headwaters of the Arkansas River, the South Platte River, and their tributaries. These pristine mountain streams provided the ideal habitat for this native species.

Decline and Near Extinction

The 19th century brought significant changes to Colorado, including the arrival of settlers and the introduction of non-native fish species. These changes, combined with habitat destruction, overfishing, and competition with introduced fish, led to the dramatic decline of Greenback Cutthroat Trout populations.

By the late 1800s, it was believed that the Greenback Cutthroat Trout had gone extinct. However, this remarkable species was not entirely lost to history.

3. Conservation Efforts

Rediscovery and Relocation

In the 1950s, a small population of Greenback Cutthroat Trout was rediscovered in a remote creek in the South Platte River drainage. This discovery sparked renewed interest in the conservation of this iconic species.

Conservationists embarked on a mission to recover the Greenback Cutthroat Trout. They carefully collected individuals from the newly discovered population and began a breeding program.

Breeding and Reintroduction

Breeding efforts in captivity were essential to the recovery of the Greenback Cutthroat Trout. These programs aimed to increase the genetic diversity of the species and produce fish that could be reintroduced into their historical range.

Gradually, efforts began to pay off as hatchery-raised Greenback Cutthroat Trout were successfully reintroduced into carefully selected streams and rivers. These reintroduction efforts continue to this day, helping to establish self-sustaining populations.

Legal Protection

To ensure the continued survival of the Greenback Cutthroat Trout, it was granted federal protection under the Endangered Species Act in 1973. This legal protection has played a crucial role in the recovery and conservation of this species.

4. Challenges in Conservation


One of the ongoing challenges in Greenback Cutthroat Trout conservation is the risk of hybridization with non-native trout species. Hybridization can dilute the genetic purity of the Greenback Cutthroat Trout, making it essential to manage and monitor populations carefully.

Habitat Degradation

Habitat degradation remains a significant threat to Greenback Cutthroat Trout. Activities such as mining, logging, and urban development can harm the streams and rivers that serve as critical habitats for this species. Conservation efforts must include habitat restoration and protection.

Climate Change

Climate change is altering the temperature and flow patterns of Colorado's rivers and streams. These changes can affect the survival and reproduction of Greenback Cutthroat Trout. Adapting to these new environmental conditions is a growing concern for conservationists.

5. The Road Ahead

Ongoing Conservation Initiatives

Conservationists, government agencies, and local communities continue to work together to protect and restore Greenback Cutthroat Trout populations. Efforts include habitat restoration, removal of non-native fish species, and continued breeding and reintroduction programs.

How You Can Help

You can play a role in the conservation of Greenback Cutthroat Trout by supporting local and national conservation organizations, practicing responsible angling, and advocating for policies that protect their habitat. Additionally, educating others about the importance of preserving native species is crucial for their long-term survival.

6. Conclusion

The story of the Greenback Cutthroat Trout is one of resilience and hope. Through decades of dedicated conservation efforts, this native Colorado species has been given a second chance at survival. While challenges remain, the collaboration of scientists, conservationists, and the community serves as a testament to the importance of protecting our natural heritage.

As we continue to celebrate the recovery of the Greenback Cutthroat Trout, let it serve as a reminder of the importance of preserving the rich biodiversity that graces our planet and the critical role each of us can play in ensuring a sustainable future for all native species.


Featured Posts
Recent Posts
Search By Tags
Follow Us
  • Facebook Basic Square
  • Twitter Basic Square
  • Google+ Basic Square
bottom of page